The height fluctuations of the models in the KPZ class are expected to converge to a universal process. The spatial process at equal time is known to converge to the Airy process or its variations. However, the temporal process, or more generally the two-dimensional space-time fluctuation field, is less well understood. We consider this question for the periodic TASEP (totally asymmetric simple exclusion process). For a particular initial condition, we evaluate the multitime and multilocation distribution explicitly in terms of a multiple integral involving a Fredholm determinant. We then evaluate the large-time limit in the so-called relaxation time scale.
This paper proposes and analyzes arbitrarily high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and finite volume methods which provably preserve the positivity of density and pressure for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on general meshes. Unified auxiliary theories are built for rigorously analyzing the positivity-preserving (PP) property of numerical MHD schemes with a Harten–Lax–van Leer (HLL) type flux on polytopal meshes in any space dimension. The main challenges overcome here include establishing certain relation between the PP property and a discrete divergence of magnetic field on general meshes, and estimating proper wave speeds in the HLL flux to ensure the PP property. In the 1D case, we prove that the standard DG and finite volume methods with the proposed HLL flux are PP, under a condition accessible by a PP limiter. For the multidimensional conservative MHD system, the standard DG methods with a PP limiter are not PP in general, due to the effect of unavoidable divergence error in the magnetic field. We construct provably PP high-order DG and finite volume schemes by proper discretization of the symmetrizable MHD system, with two divergence-controlling techniques: the locally divergence-free elements and suitably discretized Godunov–Powell source term. The former technique leads to zero divergence within each cell, while the latter controls the divergence error across cell interfaces. Our analysis reveals in theory that a coupling of these two techniques is very important for positivity preservation, as they exactly contribute the discrete divergence terms which are absent in standard multidimensional DG schemes but crucial for ensuring the PP property. Several numerical tests further confirm the PP property and the effectiveness of the proposed PP schemes. Unlike the conservative MHD system, the exact smooth solutions of the symmetrizable MHD system are proved to retain the positivity even if the divergence-free condition is not satisfied. Our analysis and findings further the understanding, at both discrete and continuous levels, of the relation between the PP property and the divergence-free constraint.
This paper first studies the admissible state set $\mathcal G$ of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). It paves a way for developing physical-constraints-preserving (PCP) schemes for the RMHD equations with the solutions in $\mathcal G$. To overcome the difficulties arising from the extremely strong nonlinearities and no explicit formulas of the primitive variables and the flux vectors with respect to the conservative vector, two equivalent forms of $\mathcal G$ with explicit constraints on the conservative vector are skillfully discovered. The first is derived by analyzing roots of several polynomials and transferring successively them, and further used to prove the convexity of $\mathcal G$ with the aid of semi-positive definiteness of the second fundamental form of a hypersurface. While the second is derived based on the convexity, and then used to show the orthogonal invariance of $\mathcal G$. The Lax–Friedrichs (LxF) splitting property does not hold generally for the nonzero magnetic field, but by a constructive inequality and pivotal techniques, we discover the generalized LxF splitting properties, combining the convex combination of some LxF splitting terms with a discrete divergence-free condition of the magnetic field. Based on the above analyses, several 1D and 2D PCP schemes are then studied. In the 1D case, a first-order accurate LxF-type scheme is first proved to be PCP under the Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) condition, and then the high-order accurate PCP schemes are proposed via a PCP limiter. In the 2D case, the discrete divergence-free condition and PCP property are analyzed for a first-order accurate LxF-type scheme, and two sufficient conditions are derived for high-order accurate PCP schemes. Our analysis reveals in theory for the first time that the discrete divergence-free condition is closely connected with the PCP property. Several numerical examples demonstrate the theoretical findings and the performance of numerical schemes.
We develop a generic game platform that can be used to model various real-world systems with multiple intelligent cloud-computing pools and parallel-queues for resources-competing users. Inside the platform, the software structure is modelled as Blockchain. All the users are associated with Big Data arrival streams whose random dynamics is modelled by triply stochastic renewal reward processes (TSRRPs). Each user may be served simultaneously by multiple pools while each pool with parallel- servers may also serve multi-users at the same time via smart policies in the Blockchain, e.g. a Nash equilibrium point myopically at each fixed time to a game-theoretic scheduling problem. To illustrate the effectiveness of our game platform, we model the performance measures of its internal data flow dynamics (queue length and workload processes) as reflecting diffusion with regime-switchings (RDRSs) under our scheduling policies. By RDRS models, we can prove our myopic game-theoretic policy to be an asymptotic Pareto minimal-dual-cost Nash equilibrium one globally over the whole time horizon to a randomly evolving dynamic game problem. Iterative schemes for simulating our multi-dimensional RDRS models are also developed with the support of numerical comparisons.
Songting LiShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityNan LiuBeijing Normal UniversityXiaohui ZhangBeijing Normal UniversityDavid McLaughlinCourant Institute New York UniversityDouglas ZhouShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityDavid CaiCourant Institute New York University
Data Analysis, Bio-Statistics, Bio-Mathematicsmathscidoc:2104.42004
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116, (30), 15244-15252, 2019.7
Complex dendrites in general present formidable challenges to understanding neuronal information processing. To circumvent the difficulty, a prevalent viewpoint simplifies the neuronal morphology as a point representing the soma, and the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents originated from the dendrites are treated as linearly summed at the soma. Despite its extensive applications, the validity of the synaptic current description remains unclear, and the existing point neuron framework fails to characterize the spatiotemporal aspects of dendritic integration supporting specific computations. Using electrophysiological experiments, realistic neuronal simulations, and theoretical analyses, we demonstrate that the traditional assumption of linear summation of synaptic currents is oversimplified and underestimates the inhibition effect. We then derive a form of synaptic integration current within the point neuron framework to capture dendritic effects. In the derived form, the interaction between each pair of synaptic inputs on the dendrites can be reliably parameterized by a single coefficient, suggesting the inherent low-dimensional structure of dendritic integration. We further generalize the form of synaptic integration current to capture the spatiotemporal interactions among multiple synaptic inputs and show that a point neuron model with the synaptic integration current incorporated possesses the computational ability of a spatial neuron with dendrites, including direction selectivity, coincidence detection, logical operation, and a bilinear dendritic integration rule discovered in experiment. Our work amends the modeling of synaptic inputs and improves the computational power of a modeling neuron within the point neuron framework.
Inversive distance circle packing metric was introduced by P Bowers and K Stephenson as a generalization of Thurston’s circle packing metric. They conjectured that the inversive distance circle packings are rigid. For nonnegative inversive distance, Guo
proved the infinitesimal rigidity and then Luo proved the global rigidity. In this paper, based on an observation of Zhou, we prove this conjecture for inversive distance in (−1, +∞)by variational principles. We also study the global rigidity of a combinatorial curvature with respect to the inversive distance circle packing metrics where the inversive distance is in (−1, +∞).
Computing uniformization maps for surfaces has been a challenging problem and has many practical applications. In this paper, we provide a theoretically rigorous algorithm to compute such maps via combinatorial Calabi flow for vertex scaling of polyhedral metrics on surfaces, which is an analogue of the combinatorial Yamabe flow introduced by Luo (Commun Contemp Math 6(5):765–780, 2004). To handle the singularies along the combinatorial Calabi flow, we do surgery on the flow by flipping. Using the discrete conformal theory established in Gu et al. (J Differ Geom 109(3):431–466, 2018; J Differ Geom 109(2):223–256, 2018), we prove that for any initial Euclidean or hyperbolic polyhedral metric on a closed surface, the combinatorial Calabi flow with surgery exists for all time and converges exponentially fast after finite number of surgeries. The convergence is independent of the combinatorial structure of the initial triangulation on the surface.
In this paper, we prove the global rigidity of sphere packings on 3-dimensional manifolds. This is a 3-dimensional analogue of the rigidity theorem of Andreev-Thurston and was conjectured by Cooper and Rivin. We also prove a global rigidity result using a combinatorial scalar curvature introduced by Ge and the author.
Budding yeast, which undergoes polarized growth during budding and mating, has been a useful model system to study cell polarization. Bud sites are selected differently in haploid and diploid yeast cells: haploid cells bud in an axial manner, while diploid cells bud in a bipolar manner. While previous studies have been focused on the molecular details of the bud site selection and polarity establishment, not much is known about how different budding patterns give rise to different functions at the population level. In this paper, we develop a two-dimensional agent-based model to study budding yeast colonies with cell-type specific biological processes, such as budding, mating, mating type switch, consumption of nutrients, and cell death. The model demonstrates that the axial budding pattern enhances mating probability at an early stage and the bipolar budding pattern improves colony development under nutrient limitation. Our results suggest that the frequency of mating type switch might control the trade-off between diploidization and inbreeding. The effect of cellular aging is also studied through our model. Based on the simulations, colonies initiated by an aged haploid cell show declined mating probability at an early stage and recover as the rejuvenated offsprings become the majority. Colonies initiated with aged diploid cells do not show disadvantage in colony expansion possibly due to the fact that young cells contribute the most to colony expansion.
Randomness often plays an important role in the spatial and temporal dynamics of biological systems. General stochastic simulation methods may lead to excessive computational cost for a system in which a large number of molecules involved. Therefore, multi-scale hybrid simulation methods become important for stochastic simulations. Here we build a spatially hybrid method which couples two approaches: discrete stochastic simulation and continuous stochastic differential equations. In our method, the locations of the interfaces between the two approaches are changing according to the distribution of molecules in a one-dimensional domain. To balance the accuracy and efficiency, the time step of the numerical method for the continuous stochastic differential equations is adapted to the dynamics of the molecules near the adaptive interfaces. The simulation results for a linear system and two nonlinear biological systems in different one-dimensional domains demonstrate the effectiveness and advantage of our new hybrid method with the adaptive time step control.
High-throughput biological technologies (e.g. ChIPseq, RNA-seq and single-cell RNA-seq) rapidly accelerate the accumulation of genome-wide omics data in
diverse interrelated biological scenarios (e.g. cells,
tissues and conditions). Integration and differential
analysis are two common paradigms for exploring
and analyzing such data. However, current integrative methods usually ignore the differential part, and
typical differential analysis methods either fail to
identify combinatorial patterns of difference or require matched dimensions of the data. Here, we propose a flexible framework CSMF to combine them
into one paradigm to simultaneously reveal Common
and Specific patterns via Matrix Factorization from
data generated under interrelated biological scenarios. We demonstrate the effectiveness of CSMF with
four representative applications including pairwise
ChIP-seq data describing the chromatin modification
map between K562 and Huvec cell lines; pairwise
RNA-seq data representing the expression profiles of
two different cancers; RNA-seq data of three breast
cancer subtypes; and single-cell RNA-seq data of human embryonic stem cell differentiation at six time
points. Extensive analysis yields novel insights into
hidden combinatorial patterns in these multi-modal
data. Results demonstrate that CSMF is a powerful
tool to uncover common and specific patterns with
significant biological implications from data of interrelated biological scenarios.
We study the well-posedness of a unified system of coupled forward-backward stochastic differential equations (FB-SDEs)
with Levy jumps and double completely-S skew reflections. Owing to the reflections, the solution to an embedded Skorohod problem may be not unique, i.e., bifurcations may occur at reflection boundaries, the well-known contraction mapping approach can not be extended directly to solve our problem. Thus, we develop a weak convergence method to prove the well-posedness of an adapted 6-tuple weak solution in the sense of distribution to the unified system. The proof heavily depends on newly established Malliavin calculus for vector-valued Levy processes together with a generalized linear growth and Lipschitz condition that guarantees the well-posedness of the unified system even under a random environment. Nevertheless,
if a more strict boundary condition is imposed, i.e., the spectral radii in certain sense for the reflections are strictly less than the unity, a unique adapted 6-tuple strong solution in the sense of sample pathwise is concerned. In addition, as applications and economical studies of our unified system, we also develop new techniques including deriving a generalized mutual information formula for signal processing over possible non-Gaussian channels with multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antennas and dynamics driven by Levy processes.
We define piecewise continuous almost automorphic (p.c.a.a.) functions in the manners of Bochner, Bohr and Levitan, respectively, to describe almost automorphic motions in impulsive systems, and prove that with certain prefixed possible discontinuities they are equivalent to quasi-uniformly continuous Stepanov almost automorphic ones. Spatially almost automorphic sets on the line, which serve as suitable objects containing discontinuities of p.c.a.a. functions, are characterized in the manners of Bochner, Bohr and Levitan, respectively, and shown to be equivalent. Two Favard's theorems are established to illuminate the importance and convenience of p.c.a.a. functions in the study of almost periodically forced impulsive systems.
In this paper, we discuss the Weyl problem in warped product spaces. We apply the method of continuity and prove the openness
of the Weyl problem. A counterexample is constructed to show that the isometric embedding of the sphere with canonical metric
is not unique up to an isometry if the ambient warped product space is not a space form. Then, we study the rigidity of the
standard sphere if we fix its geometric center in the ambient space. Finally, we discuss a Shi-Tam type of inequality for the
Schwarzschild manifold as an application of our findings.
We consider the reconstruction of the Robin impedance coefficient of a heat conduction system in a two-dimensional spatial domain from the time-average measurement specified on the boundary. By applying the potential representation of a solution, this nonlinear inverse problem is transformed into an ill-posed integral system coupling the density function for potential and the
unknown boundary impedance. The uniqueness as well as the conditional stability of this inverse problem is established from the integral system. Then we propose to find the boundary impedance by solving a non-convex regularizing optimization problem. The well-posedness of this optimization problem together with the convergence property of the minimizer is analyzed. Finally, based on the singularity decomposition of the potential representation of the solution, two iteration schemes with their numerical realizations are proposed to solve this optimization problem
We consider an inverse problem of recovering a time-dependent factor of an unknown source on some subboundary for a diffusion equation with time fractional derivative by nonlocal measurement data. Such fractional-order equations describe anomalous diffusion of some contaminants in heterogeneous media such as soil and model the contamination process from an unknown source located on a part of the boundary of the concerned domain. For this inverse problem, we firstly establish the well-posedness in some Sobolev space. Then we propose two regularizing schemes in order to reconstruct an unknown boundary source stably in terms of the noisy measurement data. The first regularizing scheme is based on an integral equation of the second kind which an unknown boundary source solves, and we prove a convergence rate of regularized solutions with a suitable choice strategy of the regularizing parameter. The second regularizing scheme relies directly on
discretization by the radial basis function for the initial-boundary value problem for fractional diffusion equation, and we carry out numerical tests, which show the validity of our proposed regularizing scheme.
We estimate the heat conducted by a cluster of many small cavities. We show that the dominating heat is a sum, over the number of cavities, of the heat generated by each cavity after interacting with each other. This interaction is described through densities computable as solutions of a closed, and invertible, system of time domain integral equations of second kind. As an application of these expansions, we derive the effective heat conductivity which generates approximately the same heat as the cluster of cavities, distributed in a three-dimensional bounded domain, with explicit error estimates in terms of that cluster. At the analysis level, we use time domain integral equations. Doing that, we have two choices. First, we can favor the space variable by reducing the heat potentials to the ones related to the Laplace operator (avoiding Laplace transform). Second, we can favor the time variable by reducing the representation to the Abel integral operator. As the model under investigation has time-independent parameters, we follow the first approach here.
We consider the problem of reconstructing unknown inclusions inside a thermal conductor from boundary measurements, which arises from active thermography and is formulated as an inverse boundary value problem for the heat equation. In our previous works, we proposed a sampling-type method for reconstructing the boundary of the unknown inclusion and gave its rigorous mathematical justification. In this paper, we continue our previous works and provide a further investigation of the reconstruction method from both the theoretical and numerical points of view. First, we analyze the solvability of the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map gap equation and establish a relation of its solution to the Green function of an interior transmission problem for the inclusion. This naturally provides a way of computing this Green function from the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map. Our new findings reveal the essence of the reconstruction method. A convergence result for noisy measurement data is also proved. Second, based on the heat layer potential argument, we perform a numerical implementation of the reconstruction method for the homogeneous inclusion case. Numerical results are presented to show the efficiency and stability of the proposed method.
Consider the problem of reconstructing unknown Robin inclusions inside a heat conductor from boundary measurements. This problem arises from active thermography and is formulated as an inverse boundary value problem for the heat equation. In our previous works, we proposed a sampling-type method for reconstructing the boundary of the Robin inclusion and gave its rigorous mathematical justification. This method is non-iterative and based on the characterization of the solution to the so-called Neumann-to-Dirichlet map gap equation. In this paper, we give a further investigation of the reconstruction method from both the theoretical and numerical points of view. First, we clarify the solvability of the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map gap equation and establish a relation of its solution to the Green function associated with an initial-boundary value problem for the heat equation inside the Robin inclusion. This naturally provides a way of computing this Green function from the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map and explains what is the input for the linear sampling method. Assuming that the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map gap equation has a unique solution, we also show the convergence of our method for noisy measurements. Second, we give the numerical implementation of the reconstruction method for two-dimensional spatial domains. The measurements for our inverse problem are simulated by solving the forward problem via the boundary integral equation method. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the efficiency and stability of the proposed method. By using a finite sequence of transient input over a time interval, we propose a new sampling method over the time interval by single measurement which is most likely to be practical.
We study detecting a boundary corrosion damage in the inaccessible part of a rectangular shaped electrostatic conductor from a one set of Cauchy data specied on an accessible boundary part of conductor. For this nonlinear ill-posed problem, we prove the uniqueness in a very general framework. Then we establish the conditional stability of Holder type based on some a priori assumptions on the unknown impedance and the electrical current input specied in the accessible part. Finally a regularizing scheme of double regularizing parameters, using the truncation of the series expansion of the solution, is proposed with the convergence analysis on the explicit regularizing solution in terms of a practical average norm for measurement data.