We consider problems related to the asymptotic minimization of eigenvalues of anisotropic harmonic oscillators in the plane. In particular we study Riesz means of the eigenvalues and the trace of the corresponding heat kernels. The eigenvalue minimization problem can be reformulated as a lattice point problem where one wishes to maximize the number of points of (N−12)×(N−12) inside triangles with vertices (0,0),(0,λβ−−√) and (λ/β−−√,0) with respect to β>0, for fixed λ≥0. This lattice point formulation of the problem naturally leads to a family of generalized problems where one instead considers the shifted lattice (N+σ)×(N+τ), for σ,τ>−1. We show that the nature of these problems are rather different depending on the shift parameters, and in particular that the problem corresponding to harmonic oscillators, σ=τ=−12, is a critical case.
We study the multiplicative Hilbert matrix, i.e. the infinite matrix with entries (mn−−−√log(mn))−1 for m,n≥2. This matrix was recently introduced within the context of the theory of Dirichlet series, and it was shown that the multiplicative Hilbert matrix has no eigenvalues and that its continuous spectrum coincides with [0,π]. Here we prove that the multiplicative Hilbert matrix has no singular continuous spectrum and that its absolutely continuous spectrum has multiplicity one. Our argument relies on spectral perturbation theory and scattering theory. Finding an explicit diagonalisation of the multiplicative Hilbert matrix remains an interesting open problem.
We aim to maximize the number of first-quadrant lattice points in a convex domain with respect to reciprocal stretching in the coordinate directions. The optimal domain is shown to be asymptotically balanced, meaning that the stretch factor approaches 1 as the “radius” approaches infinity. In particular, the result implies that among all p-ellipses (or Lamé curves), the p-circle encloses the most first-quadrant lattice points as the radius approaches infinity, for 1<p<∞.
The case p=2 corresponds to minimization of high eigenvalues of the Dirichlet Laplacian on rectangles, and so our work generalizes a result of Antunes and Freitas. Similarly, we generalize a Neumann eigenvalue maximization result of van den Berg, Bucur and Gittins. Further, Ariturk and Laugesen recently handled 0<p<1 by building on our results here.
The case p=1 remains open, and is closely related to minimizing energy levels of harmonic oscillators: which right triangles in the first quadrant with two sides along the axes will enclose the most lattice points, as the area tends to infinity?
We provide some characterizations for SOC-monotone and SOC-convex functions by using differential analysis. From these characterizations, we particularly obtain that a continuously differentiable function defined in an open interval is SOC-monotone (SOC-convex) of order <i>n</i> 3 if and only if it is 2-matrix monotone (matrix convex), and furthermore, such a function is also SOC-monotone (SOC-convex) of order <i>n</i> 2 if it is 2-matrix monotone (matrix convex). In addition, we also prove that Conjecture 4.2 proposed in Chen (Optimization 55:363385, 2006) does not hold in general. Some examples are included to illustrate that these characterizations open convenient ways to verify the SOC-monotonicity and the SOC-convexity of a continuously differentiable function defined on an open interval, which are often involved in the solution methods of the convex second-order cone optimization.