Chi-Ming ChangYau Mathematical Sciences Center (YMSC), Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China; Beijing Institute of Mathematical Sciences and Applications (BIMSA), Beijing, 101408, ChinaYing-Hsuan LinJefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.; Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, U.S.A.
arXiv subject: High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)mathscidoc:2207.74021
Journal of High Energy Physics, 2021, (125), 2021.10
We investigate the emergence of topological defect lines in the conformal Regge limit of two-dimensional conformal field theory. We explain how a local operator can be factorized into a holomorphic and an anti-holomorphic defect operator connected through a topological defect line, and discuss implications on analyticity and Lorentzian dynamics including aspects of chaos. We derive a formula relating the infinite boost limit, which holographically encodes the “opacity” of bulk scattering, to the action of topological defect lines on local operators. Leveraging the unitary bound on the opacity and the positivity of fusion coefficients, we show that the spectral radii of a large class of topological defect lines are given by their loop expectation values. Factorization also gives a formula relating the local and defect operator algebras and fusion categorical data. We then review factorization in rational conformal field theory from a defect perspective, and examine irrational theories. On the orbifold branch of the c = 1 free boson theory, we find a unified description for the topological defect lines through which the twist fields are factorized; at irrational points, the twist fields factorize through “non-compact” topological defect lines which exhibit continuous defect operator spectra. Along the way, we initiate the development of a formalism to characterize non-compact topological defect lines.
We study the relationship between TsT transformations, marginal deformations of string theory on AdS3 backgrounds, and irrelevant deformations of 2d CFTs. We show that TsT transformations of NS-NS backgrounds correspond to instantaneous deformations of the worldsheet action by the antisymmetric product of two Noether currents, holographically mirroring the definition of the TT¯, JT¯, TJ¯, and JJ¯ deformations of 2d CFTs. Applying a TsT transformation to string theory on BTZ ×S^3×M^4 we obtain a general class of rotating black string solutions, including the Horne-Horowitz and the Giveon-Itzhaki-Kutasov ones as special cases, which we show are holographically dual to thermal states in single-trace TT¯-deformed CFTs. We also find a smooth solution interpolating between global AdS3 in the IR and a linear dilaton background in the UV that is interpreted as the NS-NS ground state in the dual TT¯-deformed CFT. This background suggests the existence of an upper bound on the deformation parameter above which the solution becomes complex. We find that the worldsheet spectrum, the thermodynamics of the black strings (in particular their Bekenstein-Hawking entropy), and the critical value of the deformation parameter match the corresponding quantities obtained from single-trace TT¯ deformations.
Chi-Ming ChangCenter for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94704 U.S.A.Ying-Hsuan LinJefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 U.S.A.
arXiv subject: High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)mathscidoc:2207.74008
Journal of High Energy Physics, 2016, (68), 2016.10
We present a closed form expression for the semiclassical OPE coefficients that are universal for all 2D CFTs with a “weak” light spectrum, by taking the semiclassical limit of the fusion kernel. We match this with a properly regularized and normalized bulk action evaluated on a geometry with three conical defects, analytically continued in the deficit angles beyond the range for which a metric with positive signature exists. The analytically continued geometry has a codimension-one coordinate singularity surrounding the heaviest conical defect. This singularity becomes a horizon after Wick rotating to Lorentzian signature, suggesting a connection between universality and the existence of a horizon.
Luis ApoloInstitute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam, 1090GL Amsterdam, The Netherland; Beijing Institute of Mathematical Sciences and Applications, Beijing 101408, ChinaWei SongDepartment of Mathematical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China; Peng Huanwu Center for Fundamental Theory, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China
arXiv subject: High Energy Physics - Theory (hep-th)mathscidoc:2204.74002
We generate a class of string backgrounds by a sequence of TsT transformations of the NS1-NS5 system that we argue are holographically dual to states in a single-trace TT¯+JT¯+TJ¯-deformed CFT2. The new string backgrounds include general rotating black hole solutions with two U(1) charges as well as a smooth solution without a horizon that is interpreted as the ground state. As evidence for the correspondence we (i) derive the long string spectrum and relate it to the spectrum of the dual field theory; (ii) show that the black hole thermodynamics can be reproduced from single-trace TT¯+JT¯+TJ¯-deformed CFTs; and (iii) show that the energy of the ground state matches the energy of the vacuum in the dual theory. We also study geometric properties of these new spacetimes and find that for some choices of the parameters the three-dimensional Ricci scalar in the Einstein frame can become positive in a region outside the horizon before reaching closed timelike curves and singularities.
Open quantum walks (also known as open quantum random walks) are quantum analogs
of classical Markov chains in probability theory, and have potential application in quan-
tum information and quantum computation. Quantum Bernoulli noises are annihilation
and creation operators acting on Bernoulli functionals, and can be used as the environ-
ment of an open quantum system. In this paper, by using quantum Bernoulli noises as
the environment, we introduce an open quantum walk on a general higher-dimensional
integer lattice. We obtain a quantum channel representation of the walk, which shows
that the walk is indeed an open quantum walk. We prove that all the states of the walk
are separable provided its initial state is separable. We also prove that, for some initial
states, the walk has a limit probability distribution of higher-dimensional Gauss type.
Finally we show links between the walk and a unitary quantum walk recently introduced
in terms of quantum Bernoulli noises.
We observe that some self-similar measures defined by finite or infinite iterated function systems with overlaps satisfy certain "bounded measure type condition", which allows us to extract useful measure-theoretic properties of iterates of the measure. We develop a technique to obtain a closed formula for the spectral dimension of the Laplacian defined by self-similar measure satisfying this condition. For Laplacians defined by fractal measures with overlaps, spectral dimension has been obtained earlier only for a small class of one-dimensional self-similar measures satisfying Strichartz second-order self-similar identities. The main technique we use relies on the vector-valued renewal theorem proved by Lau, Wang and Chu.
We describe an inductive machinery to prove various properties of representations of a category equipped with a generic shift functor. Specifically, we show that if a property (P) of representations of the category behaves well under the generic shift functor, then all finitely generated representations of the category have the property (P). In this way, we obtain simple criteria for properties such as Noetherianity, finiteness of Castelnuovo-Mumford regularity, and polynomial growth of dimension to hold. This gives a systemetic and uniform proof of such properties for representations of the categories $\FI_G$ and $\OI_G$ which appear in representation stability theory.