This paper proposes and analyzes arbitrarily high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and finite volume methods which provably preserve the positivity of density and pressure for the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) on general meshes. Unified auxiliary theories are built for rigorously analyzing the positivity-preserving (PP) property of numerical MHD schemes with a Harten–Lax–van Leer (HLL) type flux on polytopal meshes in any space dimension. The main challenges overcome here include establishing certain relation between the PP property and a discrete divergence of magnetic field on general meshes, and estimating proper wave speeds in the HLL flux to ensure the PP property. In the 1D case, we prove that the standard DG and finite volume methods with the proposed HLL flux are PP, under a condition accessible by a PP limiter. For the multidimensional conservative MHD system, the standard DG methods with a PP limiter are not PP in general, due to the effect of unavoidable divergence error in the magnetic field. We construct provably PP high-order DG and finite volume schemes by proper discretization of the symmetrizable MHD system, with two divergence-controlling techniques: the locally divergence-free elements and suitably discretized Godunov–Powell source term. The former technique leads to zero divergence within each cell, while the latter controls the divergence error across cell interfaces. Our analysis reveals in theory that a coupling of these two techniques is very important for positivity preservation, as they exactly contribute the discrete divergence terms which are absent in standard multidimensional DG schemes but crucial for ensuring the PP property. Several numerical tests further confirm the PP property and the effectiveness of the proposed PP schemes. Unlike the conservative MHD system, the exact smooth solutions of the symmetrizable MHD system are proved to retain the positivity even if the divergence-free condition is not satisfied. Our analysis and findings further the understanding, at both discrete and continuous levels, of the relation between the PP property and the divergence-free constraint.
This paper first studies the admissible state set $\mathcal G$ of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). It paves a way for developing physical-constraints-preserving (PCP) schemes for the RMHD equations with the solutions in $\mathcal G$. To overcome the difficulties arising from the extremely strong nonlinearities and no explicit formulas of the primitive variables and the flux vectors with respect to the conservative vector, two equivalent forms of $\mathcal G$ with explicit constraints on the conservative vector are skillfully discovered. The first is derived by analyzing roots of several polynomials and transferring successively them, and further used to prove the convexity of $\mathcal G$ with the aid of semi-positive definiteness of the second fundamental form of a hypersurface. While the second is derived based on the convexity, and then used to show the orthogonal invariance of $\mathcal G$. The Lax–Friedrichs (LxF) splitting property does not hold generally for the nonzero magnetic field, but by a constructive inequality and pivotal techniques, we discover the generalized LxF splitting properties, combining the convex combination of some LxF splitting terms with a discrete divergence-free condition of the magnetic field. Based on the above analyses, several 1D and 2D PCP schemes are then studied. In the 1D case, a first-order accurate LxF-type scheme is first proved to be PCP under the Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy (CFL) condition, and then the high-order accurate PCP schemes are proposed via a PCP limiter. In the 2D case, the discrete divergence-free condition and PCP property are analyzed for a first-order accurate LxF-type scheme, and two sufficient conditions are derived for high-order accurate PCP schemes. Our analysis reveals in theory for the first time that the discrete divergence-free condition is closely connected with the PCP property. Several numerical examples demonstrate the theoretical findings and the performance of numerical schemes.
We develop a generic game platform that can be used to model various real-world systems with multiple intelligent cloud-computing pools and parallel-queues for resources-competing users. Inside the platform, the software structure is modelled as Blockchain. All the users are associated with Big Data arrival streams whose random dynamics is modelled by triply stochastic renewal reward processes (TSRRPs). Each user may be served simultaneously by multiple pools while each pool with parallel- servers may also serve multi-users at the same time via smart policies in the Blockchain, e.g. a Nash equilibrium point myopically at each fixed time to a game-theoretic scheduling problem. To illustrate the effectiveness of our game platform, we model the performance measures of its internal data flow dynamics (queue length and workload processes) as reflecting diffusion with regime-switchings (RDRSs) under our scheduling policies. By RDRS models, we can prove our myopic game-theoretic policy to be an asymptotic Pareto minimal-dual-cost Nash equilibrium one globally over the whole time horizon to a randomly evolving dynamic game problem. Iterative schemes for simulating our multi-dimensional RDRS models are also developed with the support of numerical comparisons.