Data-based detection and quantification of causation in complex, nonlinear dynamical systems is of paramount importance to science, engineering, and beyond. Inspired by the widely used methodology in recent years, the cross-map-based techniques, we develop a general framework to advance towards a comprehensive understanding of dynamical causal mechanisms, which is consistent with the natural interpretation of causality. In particular, instead of measuring the smoothness of the cross-map as conventionally implemented, we define causation through measuring the scaling law for the continuity of the investigated dynamical system directly. The uncovered scaling law enables accurate, reliable, and efficient detection of causation and assessment of its strength in general complex dynamical systems, outperforming those existing representative methods. The continuity scaling-based framework is rigorously established and demonstrated using datasets from model complex systems and the real world.
Forest above-ground biomass (AGB) can be estimated based on light detection and ranging (LiDAR) point clouds. This paper introduces an accurate and detailed quantitative structure model (AdQSM), which can estimate the AGB of large tropical trees. AdQSM is based on the reconstruction of 3D tree models from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds. It represents a tree as a set of closed and complete convex polyhedra. We use AdQSM to model 29 trees of various species (total 18 species) scanned by TLS from three study sites (the dense tropical forests of Peru, Indonesia, and Guyana). The destructively sampled tree geometry measurement data is used as reference values to evaluate the accuracy of diameter at breast height (DBH), tree height, tree volume, branch volume, and AGB estimated from AdQSM. After AdQSM reconstructs the structure and volume of each tree, AGB is derived by combining the wood density of the specific tree species from destructive sampling. The AGB estimation from AdQSM and the post-harvest reference measurement data show a satisfying agreement. The coefficient of variation of root mean square error (CV-RMSE) and the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) are 20.37% and 0.97, respectively. AdQSM provides accurate tree volume estimation, regardless of the characteristics of the tree structure, without major systematic deviations. We compared the accuracy of AdQSM and TreeQSM in modeling the volume of 29 trees. The tree volume from AdQSM is compared with the reference value, and the determination coefficient (R2), relative bias (rBias), and CV-RMSE of tree volume are 0.96, 6.98%, and 22.62%, respectively. The tree volume from TreeQSM is compared with the reference value, and the R2, relative Bias (rBias), and CV-RMSE of tree volume are 0.94, −9.69%, and 23.20%, respectively. The CCCs between the volume estimates based on AdQSM, TreeQSM, and the reference values are 0.97 and 0.96. AdQSM also models the branches in detail. The volume of branches from AdQSM is compared with the destructive measurement reference data. The R2, rBias, and CV-RMSE of the branches volume are 0.97, 12.38%, and 36.86%, respectively. The DBH and height of the harvested trees were used as reference values to test the accuracy of AdQSM’s estimation of DBH and tree height. The R2, rBias, and CV-RMSE of DBH are 0.94, −5.01%, and 9.06%, respectively. The R2, rBias, and CV-RMSE of the tree height were 0.95, 1.88%, and 5.79%, respectively. This paper provides not only a new QSM method for estimating AGB based on TLS point clouds but also the potential for further development and testing of allometric equations.
We propose a deep learning-based method for object detection in UAV-borne thermal images that have the capability of observing scenes in both day and night. Compared with visible images, thermal images have lower requirements for illumination conditions, but they typically have blurred edges and low contrast. Using a boundary-aware salient object detection network, we extract the saliency maps of the thermal images to improve the distinguishability. Thermal images are augmented with the corresponding saliency maps through channel replacement and pixel-level weighted fusion methods. Considering the limited computing power of UAV platforms, a lightweight combinational neural network ComNet is used as the core object detection method. The YOLOv3 model trained on the original images is used as a benchmark and compared with the proposed method. In the experiments, we analyze the detection performances of the ComNet models with different image fusion schemes. The experimental results show that the average precisions (APs) for pedestrian and vehicle detection have been improved by 2%~5% compared with the benchmark without saliency map fusion and MobileNetv2. The detection speed is increased by over 50%, while the model size is reduced by 58%. The results demonstrate that the proposed method provides a compromise model, which has application potential in UAV-borne detection tasks.
SZU-CHI CHUNGINSTITUTE OF STATISTICSHAO-HSUAN WANGINSTITUTE OF STATISTICPO-YAO NIUINSTITUTE OF STATISTICSU-YUN HUANGINSTITUTE OF STATISTICWEI-HAU CHANGINSTITUTE OF STATISTICI-PING TUINSTITUTE OF STATISTIC
Silver Award Paper in 2020
Annals of Mathematical Sciences and Applicaitons , 5, (2), 2020
Principal component analysis (PCA) is arguably the most widely used
dimension-reduction method for vector-type data. When applied to a
sample of images, PCA requires vectorization of the image data, which
in turn entails solving an eigenvalue problem for the sample covariance matrix. We propose herein a two-stage dimension reduction (2SDR)
method for image reconstruction from high-dimensional noisy image
data. The first stage treats the image as a matrix, which is a tensor of
order 2, and uses multilinear principal component analysis (MPCA) for
matrix rank reduction and image denoising. The second stage vectorizes
the reduced-rank matrix and achieves further dimension and noise reduction. Simulation studies demonstrate excellent performance of 2SDR, for
which we also develop an asymptotic theory that establishes consistency
of its rank selection. Applications to cryo-EM (cryogenic electronic microscopy), which has revolutionized structural biology, organic and medical chemistry, cellular and molecular physiology in the past decade, are
also provided and illustrated with benchmark cryo-EM datasets. Connections to other contemporaneous developments in image reconstruction
and high-dimensional statistical inference are also discussed.
We establish by exact, nonperturbative methods a universality for the correlation functions in Kraichnan's``rapid-change''model of a passively advected scalar field. We show that the solutions for separated points in the convective range of scales are unique and independent of the particular mechanism of the scalar dissipation. Any non-universal dependences therefore must arise from the large length-scale features. The main step in the proof is to show that solutions of the model equations are unique even in the idealized case of zero diffusivity, under a very modest regularity requirement (square-integrability). Within this regularity class the only zero-modes of the global many-body operators are shown to be trivial ones (ie constants). In a bounded domain of size L , with physical boundary conditions, the``ground-state energy''is strictly positive and scales as L with an exponent L .
We study a class of nonlinear nonlocal cochlear models of the transmission line type, describing the motion of basilar membrane (BM) in the cochlea. They are damped dispersive partial differential equations (PDEs) driven by time dependent boundary forcing due to the input sounds. The global well-posedness in time follows from energy estimates. Uniform bounds of solutions hold in the case of bounded nonlinear damping. When the input sounds are multi-frequency tones, and the nonlinearity in the PDEs is cubic, we construct smooth quasi-periodic solutions (multi-tone solutions) in the weakly nonlinear regime, where new frequencies are generated due to nonlinear interaction. When the input consists of two tones at frequencies f 1, f 2 (f 1< f 2), and high enough intensities, numerical results illustrate the formation of combination tones at 2f 1 f 2 and 2f 2 f 1, in agreement with hearing experiments. We visualize
A two-space dimensional active nonlinear nonlocal cochlear model is formulated in the time domain to capture nonlinear hearing effects such as compression, multi-tone suppression and difference tones. The micromechanics of the basilar membrane (BM) are incorporated to model active cochlear properties. An active gain parameter is constructed in the form of a nonlinear nonlocal functional of BM displacement. The model is discretized with a boundary integral method and numerically solved using an iterative second-order accurate finite difference scheme. A block matrix structure of the discrete system is exploited to simplify the numerics with no loss of accuracy. Model responses to multiple frequency stimuli are shown in agreement with hearing experiments. A nonlinear spectrum is computed from the model, and compared with FFT spectrum for noisy tonal inputs. The discretized model is efficient and accurate
Dispersive instability appears in time-domain solutions of classical cochlear models. In this letter, a derivation of optimal initial data is presented to minimize the effect of instability. A second-order accurate implicit boundary integral method is introduced. Numerical solutions of two-dimensional models show that the optimal initial conditions work successfully in time-domain steady-state computations for both the zero Neumann and zero Dirichlet fluid pressure boundary conditions at the helicotrema.
A nonlinear, nonlocal cochlear model of the transmission line type is studied in order to capture the multitone interactions and resulting tonal suppression effects. The model can serve as a module for voice signal processing, and is a one-dimensional (in space) damped dispersive nonlinear PDE based on the mechanics and phenomenology of hearing. It describes the motion of the basilar membrane (BM0 in the cochlea driven by input pressure waves. Both elastic dampling and selective longitudinal fluid damping are present. The forner is nonlinear and nonlocal in BM displacement, and plays a kep role in capturing tonal interactions. The latter is active only near the exit boundary (helicotrema), and is built in to damp out the remaining long waves. The initial boundary value problem is numerically solved with a semi-implicit second order finite difference method. Solutions reach a multi-frequency quai-steady state
Feedback modules, which appear ubiquitously in biological regulations, are often subject to disturbances from the input, leading to fluctuations in the output. Thus, the question becomes how a feedback system can produce a faithful response with a noisy input. We employed multiple time scale analysis, Fluctuation Dissipation Theorem, linear stability, and numerical simulations to investigate a module with one positive feedback loop driven by an external stimulus, and we obtained a critical quantity in noise attenuation, termed as signed activation time. We then studied the signed activation time for a system of two positive feedback loops, a system of one positive feedback loop and one negative feedback loop, and six other existing biological models consisting of multiple components along with positive and negative feedback loops. An inverse relationship is found between the noise amplification rate and the signed activation time, defined as the difference between the deactivation and activation time scales of the noise-free system, normalized by the frequency of noises presented in the input. Thus, the combination of fast activation and slow deactivation provides the best noise attenuation, and it can be attained in a single positive feedback loop system. An additional positive feedback loop often leads to a marked decrease in activation time, decrease or slight increase of deactivation time and allows larger kinetic rate variations for slow deactivation and fast activation. On the other hand, a negative feedback loop may increase the activation and deactivation times. The negative relationship between the noise amplification rate and the signed
Three-dimensional data merging is vital for full-field three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement. All 3D range data patches, acquired from either different sensors or the same sensor in different viewing angles, have to be merged into a single piece to facilitate future data analysis. A novel method for 3D data merging using Holoimage is proposed. Similar to the 3D shape measurement system using a phase-shifting method, Holoimage is a phase-shiftingbased computer synthesized fringe image. The 3D information is retrieved from Holoimage using a phase-shifting method. If two patches of 3D data with overlapping areas are rendered by OpenGL, the overlapping areas are resolved by the graphics pipeline, that is, only the front geometry can be visualized. Therefore, the merging is performed if the front geometry information can be obtained. Holoimage is to obtain the front geometry by projecting the fringe
One great challenge of genomic research is to efficiently and accurately identify complex gene regulatory networks. The development of high-throughput technologies provides numerous experimental data such as DNA sequences, protein sequence, and RNA expression profiles makes it possible to study interactions and regulations among genes or other substance in an organism. However, it is crucial to make inference of genetic regulatory networks from gene expression profiles and protein interaction data for systems biology. This study will develop a new approach to reconstruct time delay Boolean networks as a tool for exploring biological pathways. In the inference strategy, we will compare all pairs of input genes in those basic relationships by their corresponding -scores for every output gene. Then, we will combine those consistent relationships to reveal the most probable relationship and reconstruct the genetic network. Specifically, we will prove that state transition pairs are sufficient and necessary to reconstruct the time delay Boolean network of nodes with high accuracy if the number of input genes to each gene is bounded. We also have implemented this method on simulated and empirical yeast gene expression data sets. The test results show that this proposed method is extensible for realistic networks.
This book presents an overview of recent developments in biostatistics and bioinformatics. Written by active researchers in these emerging areas, it is intended to give graduate students and new researchers an idea of where the frontiers of biostatistics and bioinformatics are as well as a forum to learn common techniques in use, so that they can advance the fields via developing new techniques and new results. Extensive references are provided so that researchers can follow the threads to learn more comprehensively what the literature is and to conduct their own research. In particulars, the book covers three important and rapidly advancing topics in biostatistics: analysis of survival and longitudinal data, statistical methods for epidemiology, and bioinformatics.
Estimation of genewise variance arises from two important applications in microarray data analysis: selecting significantly differentially expressed genes and validation tests for normalization of microarray data. We approach the problem by introducing a two-way nonparametric model, which is an extension of the famous Neyman-Scott model and is applicable beyond microarray data. The problem itself poses interesting challenges because the number of nuisance parameters is proportional to the sample size and it is not obvious how the variance function can be estimated when measurements are correlated. In such a high-dimensional nonparametric problem, we proposed two novel nonparametric estimators for genewise variance function and semiparametric estimators for measurement correlation, via solving a system of nonlinear equations. Their asymptotic normality is established. The finite sample property is
It has been reported that the plasma levels of VEGF in tumor patients decreased during dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Our current report demonstrates that VEGF levels were significantly decreased in the supernatants of DCs incubated with rhVEGF or tumor conditioned medium (TCM) while the intracellular VEGF in DCs was increased. The increased intracellular VEGF was not due to the <i>de novo</i> VEGF synthesis by DCs because exogenous VEGF inhibited the mRNA expression of VEGF in DCs. More direct evidence was provided to demonstrate that Cy3-labeled VEGF could be internalized by DCs specifically and efficiently. In addition, the activity of DCs to internalize VEGF was abolished by neutralizing antibody against VEGF receptor-1 (Flt-1) and inhibitors of endocytosis such as carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) and genistein. This
In an event-related functional MRI data analysis, an accurate and robust extraction of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) and its associated statistics (e.g., magnitude, width, and time to peak) is critical to infer quantitative information about the relative timing of the neuronal events in different brain regions. The aim of this paper is to develop a multiscale adaptive smoothing model (MASM) to accurately estimate HRFs pertaining to each stimulus sequence across all voxels. MASM explicitly accounts for both spatial and temporal smoothness information, while incorporating such information to adaptively estimate HRFs in the frequency domain. One simulation study and a real data set are used to demonstrate the methodology and examine its finite sample performance in HRF estimation, which confirms that MASM significantly outperforms the existing methods including the smooth finite impulse
Tumor growth and metastasis require that tumor cells must have either the potential to shift genetically or epigenetically between proliferative and invasive phenotypes or both phenotypes simultaneously. In the present study, we demonstrated that neuroblastoma growth and invasion were distinct processes that were carried out by proliferative and invasive phenotypes of tumor cells, respectively. Two subpopulations from human neuroblastoma cell line were isolated: highly invasive (HI) cells and low-invasive (LI) cells. HI and LI cells had different proliferative rate and metastatic ability <i>in vitro</i> and <i>in vivo</i> . In addition, they had distinct activated signal pathways and sensitivities to chemotherapy drugs. Affymetrix microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction revealed that visinin-like protein-1 (VSNL-1) mRNA in HI cells was significantly higher than
Stem cell therapies have had tremendous potential application for many diseases in recent years. However, the tumorigeneic properties of stem cells restrict their potential clinical application; therefore, strategies for reducing the tumorigenic potential of stem cells must be established prior to transplantation. We have demonstrated that syngeneic transplantation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provokes an inflammatory response that involves the rapid recruitment of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). ESCs are able to prevent mature macrophages from macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) withdrawal-induced apoptosis, and thus prolong macrophage lifespan significantly by blocking various apoptotic pathways in an M-CSF-independent manner. ESCs express and secrete IL-34 which may be responsible for ESC-promoted macrophage survival. This anti-apoptotic effect of ESCs involves activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways and thus, inhibition of ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT activation decreases ESC-induced macrophage survival. Functionally, ESC-treated macrophages also showed a higher level of phagocytic activity. ESCs further serve to polarize BMDMs into M2-like macrophages that exhibit most tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) phenotypic and functional features. ESC-educated macrophages produce high levels of arginase-1, Tie-2 and TNF-, which participate in angiogenesis and contribute to teratoma progression. Our study suggests that induction of M2-like macrophage activation is an important mechanism for teratoma development. Strategies targeting macrophages to
<b>Motivation:</b> Normalization of microarray data is essential for multiple-array analyses. Several normalization protocols have been proposed based on different biological or statistical assumptions. A fundamental problem arises whether they have effectively normalized arrays. In addition, for a given array, the question arises how to choose a method to most effectively normalize the microarray data.
Macrophages play an important role in the inflammatory responses involved with spinal cord injury (SCI). We have previously demonstrated that infiltrated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) engulf myelin debris, forming myelin-laden macrophages (mye-M). These mye-M promote disease progression through their pro-inflammatory phenotype, enhanced neurotoxicity, and impaired phagocytic capacity for apoptotic cells. We thus hypothesize that the excessive accumulation of mye-M is the root of secondary injury, and that targeting mye-M represents an efficient strategy to improve the local inflammatory microenvironment in injured spinal cords and to further motor neuron function recovery. In this study, we administer murine embryonic stem cell conditioned media (ESC-M) as a cell-free stem cell based therapy to treat a mouse model of SCI. We showed that BMDMs, but not microglial cells, engulf myelin debris generated at the injury site. Phagocytosis of myelin debris leads to the formation of mye-M in the injured spinal cord, which are surrounded by activated microglia cells. These mye-M are pro-inflammatory and lose the normal macrophage phagocytic capacity for apoptotic cells. We therefore focus on how to trigger lipid efflux from mye-M and thus restore their function. Using ESC-M as an immune modulating treatment for inflammatory damage after SCI, we rescued mye-M function and improved functional locomotor recovery. ESC-M treatment on mye-M resulted in improved exocytosis of internalized lipids and a normal capacity for apoptotic cell phagocytosis. Furthermore, when ESC-M was administered
A semilinear in-slide model is introduced to remove the intensity effect in the scanning process. It is demonstrated that the intensity effect can be estimated accurately and removed effectively. This normalization step is vital for Affymetrix arrays to reveal relevant biological results when comparing gene expression in multiple arrays. The normalized expression ratios are analyzed further by a modified two-sample <i>t</i> test along with a sieved permutation scheme for computing <i>P</i> values. The improved specificity and sensitivity are demonstrated by using a study on the impact of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) reduction in neuroblastoma cells. With semilinear in-slide model analysis, expression of 166 genes was altered with a <i>P</i> value no greater than 0.001. Among those genes, 44 were altered >2-fold. MIF-regulated genes associated with tumor development including IL-8 and <i>C</i>-<i>met</i>, which are overexpressed
DNA microarray analysis has emerged as a leading technology to enhance our understanding of gene regulation and function in cellular mechanism controls on a genomic scale. This technology has advanced to unravel the genetic machinery of biological rhythms by collecting massive gene-expression data in a time course. Here, we present a statistical model for clustering periodic patterns of gene expression in terms of different transcriptional profiles. The model incorporates biologically meaningful Fourier series approximations of gene periodic expression into a mixture-model-based likelihood function, thus producing results that are likely to be closer to biological relevance, as compared to those from existing models. Also because the structures of the time-dependent means and covariance matrix are modeled, the new approach displays increased statistical power and precision of parameter estimation. The
The single-stranded RNA Flavivirus, Zika virus (ZIKV), has recently re-emerged and spread rapidly across the western hemispheres equatorial countries, primarily through Aedes mosquito transmission. While symptoms in adult infections appear to be self-limiting and mild, severe birth defects, such as microcephaly, have been linked to infection during early pregnancy. Recently, Tang et al. (Cell Stem Cell 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2016.02.016 ) demonstrated that ZIKV efficiently infects induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), resulting in cell cycle abnormalities and apoptosis. Consequently, hNPCs are a suggested ZIKV target. We analyzed the transcriptomic sequencing (RNA-seq) data (GEO: GSE78711) of ZIKV (Strain: MR766) infected hNPCs. For comparison to the ZIKV-infected hNPCs, the expression data from hNPCs infected with human cytomegalovirus (CMV) (Strain: AD169) was used (GEO: GSE35295). Utilizing a combination of Gene Ontology, database of human diseases, and pathway analysis, we generated a putative systemic model of infection supported by known molecular pathways of other highly related viruses. We analyzed RNA-sequencing data for transcript expression alterations in ZIKV-infected hNPCs, and then compared them to expression patterns of iPSC-derived hNPCs infected with CMV, a virus that can also induce severe congenital neurological defects in developing fetuses. We demonstrate for the first time that many of cellular pathways correlate with clinical pathologies following ZIKV infection such as microcephaly, congenital nervous
Although stem cell therapy holds promise as a potential treatment in a number of diseases, the tumorigenicity of embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells remains a major obstacle. <i>In vitro</i> predifferentiation of ESCs can help prevent the risk of teratoma formation, yet proliferating neural progenitors can generate tumors, especially in the presence of immunosuppressive therapy. In this study, we investigated the effects of the microenvironment on stem cell growth and teratoma development using undifferentiated ESCs. Syngeneic ESC transplantation triggered an inflammatory response that involved the recruitment of bone marrow (BM)derived macrophages. These macrophages differentiated into an M2 or angiogenic phenotype that expressed multiple angiogenic growth factors and proteinases, such as macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), VEGF, and matrix metalloproteinase 9
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a new infectious disease with a global impact. Understanding its pathogenesis and developing specific diagnostic methods for its early diagnosis are crucial for the effective management and control of this disease. By using proteomic technology, truncated forms of <sub>1</sub>antitrypsin (TF<sub>1</sub>AT) were found to increase significantly and consistently in sera of SARS patients compared to control subjects. The result showed a sensitivity of 100% for SARS patients and a specificity of 92.8% for controls. Furthermore, the levels of these proteins significantly correlated with certain clinicopathological parameters. The dramatic increase in TF<sub>1</sub>AT may be the result of degradation of <sub>1</sub>AT. As <sub>1</sub>AT plays an important role in the protection of lung function, its degradation may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of SARS. These findings indicate that increased TF<sub>1</sub>AT